European - Siberia Plant Societies (Black Sea Plant Socıetıes)

Black Sea Plant Society, which is under impact of a warm climate and a regular raining regime, is composed of all of the Black Sea Region as well as Marmara and Thrace, and also from place to place it is infiltrating into Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Dominant plant cover of all of the Black Sea Region is forests. Meadows are widespread in Marmara and Thrace. In Black Sea plant society, especially in the areas where hazelnut and horn beeches are spread at eastern parts, there is a forest texture rich with meşe, dişbudak, kestane, ıhlamur, akçaağaç, kızılağaç, karaağaç, muşmula, tatlan, kızılcık, yabani erik, yabani vişne, yabani kiraz, defne and mürver trees. Plant texture ascending to 700 - 900 meters height beginning from coastal parts turns into ormangülü, böğürtlen, kurtbağrı, ateşdikeni, yabangülü, hanımeli, şimşir like shrubs and bushes at lower parts.

Plants unique to this region are species used too much on the contrary to the ones in Mediterranean. A mature beech tree, is revealing half tones of water Per day to atmosphere via perspiration. At the upper parts of this plant society, beginning from 600 - 700 meters height, beech trees are faced. At higher places, between 1. 100 and 1. 300 meters, breech - fir mixture begins, and reaches till 1. 800 - 2. 000 meters. There are oak, horn beech, black pine, badger trees within this plant society. Also at east end of Black Sea fir trees leave its place to spruce trees, which can leave at higher altitudes and can reach to 2. 300 - 2. 400 meters within forest. At least moist regions of higher levels yellow pine forests, and at slopes facing south oak forests are covering wide areas at middle levels.