Cordophones (stringed instruments)
The sound from these instruments is produced by the vibration of the strings. These may be classified into two groups:
Bowed stringed instruments:
For example: The kemençe (small violin played like a cello), Kabak Kemane (ıklığ) (three-stringed violin), violin etc.
Plucked stringed instruments:
For example: Ud (lute), tambur (like a mandolin), çeng (primitive harp), tar, kanun (like a zither), santur (dulcimer), kopuz (like a lute), the bağlama family (with three double strings and two necks) – meydan sazı (largest of the saz family), court saz, bozuk (nine stringed lute), tambura, cura, üçtelli (three-string), onikitelli (twelve-string), çarta, ırızva etc.
Aerophones (Wind instruments)
Instruments whose sound comes from the vibration of the air in or around them.
For example: Zurna (like an oboe), çifte, mey (small oboe from eastern Anatolia), kaval (flageolet), sipsi (şile a boatswain’s pipe), çığırtma (small fife), tulum (bagpipe), harmonica, accordeon, mouth organ etc.
Membranophones (Skinned ınstruments)
Instruments that produce their sound from the striking of a skin.
For example: Dümbelek (small drum) (deblek, darbuka (drum made by stretching a skin over a clay cylinder)), davul (drum), daire (tambourine), def (tambourine with cymbals), kudüm (small double drum), zilli def (stringed def) etc.
Ideophones (Instruments that strike their own bodies)
These are instruments played by means of striking, beating, waving etc. and are usually made of hard materials, giving off sound by the vibration of their entire bodies.
For example: Zil (cymbal), maşa (fork), çalpara (castinets), şakşak (the spoons), çan (bell), çengizli (cymbalet), band bells etc.