Historian (b. 1937, the Hague / Netherlands). He attended the İstanbul Robert College (1935) and graduated from İstanbul University, Faculty of Law (1959). He completed his postgraduate studies at Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy in United States (1960- 61). He worked at the General Staff, Department of War History (1968- 1969) after he had taught at Robert College, School of Human Sciences (1961- 67). He received his doctorate degree at İstanbul University, Faculty of Literature, Department of History (1968). He became an associate professor (1975) with the thesis 31 Mart Olayı (31st March Incident) when he was an academician at Ankara University, Faculty of Political Sciences. He was a professor at the same faculty when he retired in 1969.
His articles have been published in reviews and newspapers such as Eylem (early articles), Forum, SBF Dergisi, Mülkiye Dergisi, Köken, Cumhuriyet, Toplum ve Bilim, Tarih ve Toplum, Turcica, Somut and Yeni Gündem. He won the T. İş Bankası Grand Prize with his work Son Meşrutiyeti / 1919- 1920 (The Last Constitution / 1919- 1920) in 1994. He is a member of the Turkish Social Sciences Association, the Academicians Association, the Ankara Institute Foundation and the Kemalist Thought Association.
STUDY-RESEARCH: 31 Mart Olayı (31st March Incident, 1970), İstanbul Hükümetleri ve Millî Mücadele (İstanbul Governments and the National Struggle, 1976), Jön Türkler ve İttihat ve Terakki* (1980), İstanbul Hükümetleri ve Millî Mücadele Cilt: II: Son Meşrutiyet / 1919-1920 (İstanbul Governments and the National Struggle Volume: II: The Last Constitution / 1919- 1920, 1992), Türkiye'nin Yakın Tarihi / 1789-1980 (Recent History of Turkey / 1789 – 1990, 1996), Türkiye'nin Önünde Üç Model (Three Models for Turkey, 1997), Essays in Ottoman-Turkish Political History (2000).
COLLECTION: Türkiye Tarihi (Turkish History, edition, volume 1: 1987, volume 2: 1988, volume 3 volume: 1988, volume 4: 1988, volume: 1995).