Historian (b. 1876, Simbrisk-Ulyanovsk / Russia - d. 1935, İstanbul). He went to İstanbul when he was a child and completed his secondary education there. He was exiled to Tripoli (1896) because of his political activities during his studies at the Military School. He went to France from Tripoli and graduated from the School of Political Sciences there and returned to Russia. He worked as a teacher in Russia until the Second Constitutional Monarchy. He wrote articles in Vakit newspaper, which was published in Kazan. He gave history lectures in the Military Academy and the University when he returned to İstanbul. He is one of the founders and directors of the Turkish Guild.
He supported the Turkism movement in Türk Yurdu journal, which he published in 1912. He became one of the founders of the Turkish Party with Adnan Adıvar and M. Emin Yurdakul. He supported the National Independence Army and participated in the War of Independence. He took part in Turkish Grand National Assembly as the İstanbul parliamentary deputy between 1923-35. Meanwhile, he also served as a lecturer and professor of history at Ankara School of Law and at İstanbul University and as chairman of the Turkish Historical Society. He was the publisher and chief writer of Türk Yıllığı, which was published in İstanbul in 1928 with the support of the Turkish Association. He died in 1935 when he was elected as the Kars parliamentary deputy. He defended the view of Pan-Turkism against writers who supported the Ottoman Union and Islamic Union in the newspapers Şura-yı Ümmet, Meşveret, and Türk, which were published by the Unionists in Paris and Egypt.
Ulûm ve Tarih (Science and History, 1906), Üç Haziran Vak'a-i Müessifesi (The Third of June Event, Orenburg, 1907), Şura-yı Ümmet'te Çıkan Makalelerim (My Articles Published in Şura-yı Ümmet Newspaper, 1910), Üç Tarz-ı Siyaset (Three Style of Politics, 1912, 1976) Mevkufiyet Hatıraları (Memoirs of Imprisonment, 1914), Rusya'daki Türk-Tatar Müslümanlarının Şimdiki Vaziyeti ve Emelleri (The Current Situation and Aims of the Turkish-Tatar Muslims in Russia, 1914), Şark Meselesine Ait Notlar (Notes About the Eastern Problem, 1920), Muasır Avrupa'da Siyasî ve İçtimaî Fikirler ve Fikir Cereyanları (Political and Social Thought and Thought Movements in Modern Europe, 1923), Siyaset ve İktisat (Politics and Economics, 1924), Türk Yıllığı (Turkish Almanac, 1928), Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun Dağılma Devri (The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire, 1940), Tâ Kendim Yahut Defter-i Âmâlim* (Me Myself or My Notebook of Intentions, 1944), Tarih-i Siyasî Dersleri (History of Political Lectures, 6 volumes), Türk Cermen ve İslav Halkları Arasındaki Tarihî Münasebetler, Osmanlı Saltanatı Müessesâtının Tarihine Dair Bir Tecrübe, Türkçülüğün Tarihi (Historical Relations Between the Turks, Germens and Slavs, an Experience of the Organization of the Ottoman Sultan Rule, History of Turkism - in Ottoman script, published in the pages 287 to 455 in the work entitled the Turkish Almanac; as an independent publication in modern Turkish; Turkism, simplified by Ahmet Özdemir, 1993; by Sadık Perinçek,1998), Türk Tarihi (Turkish History, 12 volumes, simplified by Ahmet Özdemir, 1995), Yeni Türk Devletinin Öncüleri (Pioneers of the New Turkish State, 2nd edition, 2003).