The museum, whose works were obtained in different ways from Erzurum and the surrounding cities, began its activity in 1942 in Çifte Minareli Madrasa and moved to a new building in 1967. In 1994, when the Yakutiye Madrasa Turkish-Islamic Works and Ethnography Museum was opened, it was converted into the Archaeology Museum. Its connected units are Turkish-Islamic Works Museum and Atatürk House Museum. Furthermore, the administrative works of the directorate, which executes its activities in a large region including the surrounding cities, are carried out in this building.
In the museum, there are Excavations Hall, Hall of Trans-Caucasus Culture, Urartu Hall, Natural History Hall and Armenian Massacre Hall.
The works obtained until today in the excavations made in the region are being exhibited. Among these, Karaz (1942 - 1944), Pulur (1960), Güzelova (1961), Sos (1994 - 1998) and Tumulus excavations constitute an important part. Works such as small sculptures belonging to the term between IV thousand BC and Seljuk Period, holly stoves, arrow ends, cooked earthenware pots, stone works are being exhibited.
This culture, which is known as Karaz culture in our country and which is spread over a wide region from Southern Caucasus to the west of Urmiye Lake and to Philistine, is most widely recognized in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia, especially in Erzurum and its surroundings, hence the importance of these excavations and the excavations to be carried out in the future increases.
Roman, Hellenistic, Trans - Caucasus Hall
Works obtained in İkiztepe tumulus and golden works such as diadems, rings and earrings belonging to the Roman and Hellenistic Periods that have been obtained for the museum by purchase or confiscation, works such as glass tear bottles, cooked earth, sarcophagi and works belonging to Trans-Caucasian culture that spread in the 2nd thousand BC to the west of Van Basin, Eastern Anatolia Region, around Urmiye Lake in the south-east, and to Georgia in the north-east are being exhibited.
Urartu Works and Coin Hall
The capital city of Urartu that survived between 900 - 600 BC is Van (Tuşpa). Urartu ruled as a strong kingdom in a wide region that covered Urmiye, Gökçegöl and Çıldır Lakes and that was spread to Erzincan and Malatya line in the western direction. Their roots go to Hurris. There are many forts, rock architectures, dams and irrigation facilities as well as cooked earthenware and metal pots, ornamental goods, seals, war tools, vow plates and rythons, which are exhibited in the museum, show the improvement of Urartu Civilization.In this hall, there are many coins belonging to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods.
Urartu Inscriptions and Natural History Hall
Stone Urartu inscriptions which are exhibited in this hall have been provided for the museum by purchase and are among the inscriptions that are very important written documents bringing a light to the history. The mammoth fossil that lived 500 thousand years ago, mollusk fossils, plant fossils and obsidians are included in this part.
Armenian Massacre Hall
The findings obtained from Alaca, Yeşilyayla and Tımar Village excavations in Erzurum and from Obaköy excavation in Kars among the areas of genocide against the Turks in Anatolia by Armenian komitadji in 1918, are exhibited. Among the findings, there are amulets, buttons, tobacco boxes and necklaces with crescent and star, bullet hives and parts of Kur'an - ı Kerim.